This analysis lists 137 about appear instances of Chinese espionage directed at the United States aback 2000. It does not accommodate espionage adjoin added countries, U.S. firms or bodies amid in China, nor an added 50 cases involving attempts to bootleg ammunition or controlled technologies from the U.S. to China. We additionally did not accommodate added than 1200 cases of bookish acreage action brought by U.S. companies adjoin Chinese entities in either the U.S. or Chinese acknowledged systems.
For those cases area we could analyze amateur and intent, we found:
These appear incidents are acquired from accessible antecedent material. The sources are footnoted. The account may not reflect the abounding cardinal of incidents and may not be complete. Of the 137 incidents, the decadal breakdown is:
This could reflect an admission in the cardinal of incidents afterwards 2009, but it may additionally reflect variances in the accessible advertisement of espionage cases, as greater absorption was paid to the botheration and the U.S. government reportedly became beneath resultant to about analyze China as the perpetrator afterwards 2007.
May 2001: Beginning in January 2000, Hai Lin, Kai Xu, and Yong-Qing Cheng formed a collective adventure with the Datang Telecom Technology Aggregation of Beijing to abduct barter secrets from Lucent.
2003: Chinese hackers exfiltrated civic aegis advice from Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, including nuclear weapons analysis and architecture data, and stealth aircraft data.
April 2003: Katrina M. Leung was arrested for acceptable an FBI abettor to allotment classified information, which she anesthetized on to China, over a ten-year period.
February 2004: Ronald N. Montaperto, a above DIA intelligence analyst, was begin to accept provided Chinse aggressive attaches with Abstruse and Top-Secret information.
July 2004: Yan Ming Shan, a Chinese abettor of a US software close that scans acreage for oil, acquired crooked admission to the company’s computer arrangement and attempted to accompany it aback to China.
June 2005: Noshir Gowadia, an American citizen, took six trips to China amid 2003-2005 to abetment with its cruise missile arrangement by developing a catlike bankrupt bill and was paid at atomic $110,000 by China. He provided them with designs for a low-signature cruise missile bankrupt system.
October 2005: Chi Mak and added Chinese intelligence agents calm abstruse advice about the Navy’s accustomed and approaching warship technologies. Chi advised to consign the advice to China.
November 2005: Moo Ko-Suen was a adumbrative for an American aerospace close for 10 years in Taiwan, during which time he acted as an abettor for the Chinese government and approved to buy adult aggressive genitalia and weapons, including an F-16 fighter jet abettor and cruise missiles, for China.
2005: Chinese hackers infiltrated U.S. Department of Aegis networks in an operation accustomed as “Titan Rain.” They targeted U.S. aegis contractors, Army Advice Systems Engineering Command; the Aegis Advice Systems Agency; the Naval Ocean Systems Center; and, the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Aegis installation.
April 2005: Chinese hackers infiltrated NASA networks managed by Lockheed Martin and Boeing and exfiltrated advice about the Space Shuttle Discovery program.
May 2006: Shanshan Du blanket barter abstruse advice from General Motors for the account of a Chinese competitor, Chery Automobile.
June 2006: Lan Lee and Yufei Ge conspired to abduct barter secrets accompanying to computer dent architecture and development.
July 2006: Chinese hackers infiltrated the U.S. State Department’s characterless arrangement and blanket acute advice and passwords.
August 2006: Chinese hackers infiltrated the Department of Defense’s non-classified NIPRNet, downloading 10 to 20 terabytes of data.
December 2006: Xiaodong Sheldon Meng, a aborigine of Beijing and Cupertino California, blanket aggressive IP and barter secrets from his above employer.
December 2006: Fei Ye and Ming Zhong blanket barter secrets from two American technology firms to account China. They advised to advance the secrets to body microprocessors for their company, Supervisor Inc. which would allotment any profits fabricated on the auction of chips to the City of Hangzhou and the Province of Zhejiang in China.
December 2006: Xiang Dong Yu blanket barter abstruse advice account $50-100 amateur from Ford Motor Aggregation for the account of Beijing Automotive Company.
December 2006: Chinese hackers infiltrated the U.S. Naval War College.
2007: Chinese hackers breached the Pentagon’s Collective Strike Fighter activity and blanket abstracts accompanying to the F-35 fighter jet.
January 2007: Chinese malware was apparent central the Civic Aegis University.
June 2007: The Department of Aegis shut bottomward a computer arrangement confined the Secretary of Aegis and attributed the advance to the PLA.
September 2007: Hackers acquired admission to the Department of Homeland Security’s networks through a architect and exfiltrated characterless advice to Chinese servers.
December 2007: Chinese hackers auspiciously blanket advice from Oak Ridge Civic Laboratory, Los Alamos Civic Laboratory, and the Civic Nuclear Aegis Administration.
January 2008: Qinggui Zeng blanket barter abstruse advice accompanying to the acrylic industry from an American close for the account of a Chinese firm.
February 2008: Dongfan Chung, a above Boeing engineer, was answerable with bread-and-butter espionage and confined as a adopted abettor for China. Prosecutors bent that he had been acting on Chinese orders aback at atomic 1979. He blanket Boeing barter secrets apropos to the Space Shuttle, the C-17 aggressive carriage aircraft and the Delta IV rocket for China.
February 2008: Tai Shen Kuo, a U.S. citizen, was arrested for accouterment China with classified advice amid March 2007 to February 2008. Kuo acquired the advice from a Pentagon weapons arrangement action analyst, Gregg Bergersen.
March 2008: Hanjuan Jin attempted to leave the country with 1000 cyberbanking and cardboard copies of proprietary advice accompanying to Motorola’s artery advice feature.
May 2008: Chinese admiral were accused of artful the capacity of an American computer during a appointment by Carlos Gutierrez, the US Secretary of Commerce.
September 2008: Anne Lockwood and Fuping Liu blanket barter abstruse advice from Metaldyne to account a Chinese competitor, Huafu.
November 2008: Chinese hackers infiltrated the computer networks of three above oil companies and blanket barter abstruse information.
November 2008 : Chinese hackers infiltrated the networks of Barack Obama and John McCain’s presidential campaigns and exfiltrated advice about approaching action agendas.
November 2008: Chinese hackers infiltrated the computer arrangement of the White House and acquired emails amid chief government officials.
March 2009: A Chinese espionage arrangement was apparent to accept penetrated political, economic, and amusing institutions in 103 countries. The arrangement was apparent back advisers were asked to investigate the Dalai Lama’s computer systems, which had been compromised.
March 2009: David Yen Lee, a abstruse administrator with Valspar Corp, illegally downloaded Valspar barter secrets with the absorbed of carrying them to Nippon Acrylic in Shanghai, area he had accustomed a carnality admiral position.
March 2009: Chinese hackers infiltrated Coca-Cola Co. computer networks and blanket barter abstruse information, including advice accompanying to the attempted $2.4 billion accretion of Huiyuan Juice Group.
April 2009: Yan Zhu, forth with anonymous co-conspirators, planned to abduct barter secrets apropos to computer systems and software with ecology applications from his employer.
October 2009: Hong Meng accustomed application as a adroitness affiliate at Peking University, and thereafter began soliciting allotment to commercialize his analysis from Dupont on Amoebic Light-Emitting Diodes. He aggregate barter abstruse actinic processes, including those accompanying to OLEDs, with PKU.
March 2009: Chinese hackers blanket advice from the Appointment of Senator Bill Nelson in Florida.
November 2009: Janice Capener, a Chinese national, blanket barter abstruse advice from Orbit Irrigation for the account of a aggressive Chinese firm.
January 2010: Beginning in 2009, China agitated out a alternation of cyberattacks to abduct barter abstruse advice from dozens of U.S. companies including Google, Yahoo, Adobe, Dow Chemical, and Morgan Stanley.
2010: The PLA infiltrated the computer arrangement of a Noncombatant Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) architect in which documents, flight details, accreditation and passwords for encrypted email were stolen.
May 2010: Glenn Shriver attempted to accretion admission to classified civic aegis advice on account of Chinese intelligence officers.
May 2010: Chinese hackers breached the computer arrangement of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and blanket advice accompanying to U.S. industries.
August 2010: Kexue Huang, a Chinese analysis scientist, blanket barter abstruse advice accompanying to amoebic pesticides for the account of a Chinese firm.
October 2010: York Yuan Chang and Leping Huang entered into affairs with the 24 th Analysis Institute of the China Cyberbanking Technology Association Accumulation to architecture and alteration technology for the development of two types of high-performance analog-to-digital converters.
November 2010: Zhiqiang Zhang allegedly blanket barter abstruse advice from SiRF for the account of a aggressive Chinese firm.
January 2011: A Chinese company, Pangang Group, and Walter Liew attempted to abduct barter abstruse advice accompanying to TiO2 technology from DuPont.
February 2011: Wen Chyu Liu, a analysis scientist, conspired to abduct barter abstruse advice from Dow for the account of Chinese firms.
March 2011: Sinovel, a Chinese company, blanket barter abstruse advice accompanying to antecedent cipher and designs of superconductors from AMSC.
March 2011: Press letters say that China afraid the RSA Aegis analysis of the EMC Association to abduct advice accompanying to encryption software, compromising RSA SecureID tokens. The baseborn advice was acclimated in consecutive attacks agitated out by China.
April 2011: Google appear a phishing accomplishment to accommodation hundreds of Gmail passwords for accounts of arresting people, including chief U.S. officials. Google attributes the accomplishment to China.
April 2011: Chinese hackers blanket about 1GB of abstracts from the Oak Ridge Civic Laboratory.
June 2011: Beginning in 2010, Chunlai Yang conspired to abduct barter abstruse advice accompanying to the antecedent cipher of the OS for the Globex cyberbanking trading belvedere for the account of a Chinese firm.
August 2011 : Chinese hackers affianced in a alternation of cyber-attacks adjoin 72 entities, including assorted U.S. government networks.
October 2011: Chinese hackers infiltrated at atomic 48 actinic and aegis companies and blanket barter abstruse advice and acute aggressive information.
November 2011: Chinese hackers interfered with U.S. satellites and blanket acute data.
February 2012: Media letters say that Chinese hackers blanket classified advice about the technologies onboard F-35 Collective Strike Fighters.
March 2012: NASA’s Inspector General appear that 13 attacks auspiciously compromised NASA computers in 2011. In one attack, intruders blanket 150 user accreditation that could be acclimated to accretion crooked admission to NASA systems. Another advance at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory accustomed intruders to accretion abounding admission to key JPL systems and acute user accounts.
March 2012: Trend Micro baldheaded a Chinese cyber campaign, dubbed ‘Luckycat’ that targeted U.S.-based activists and organizations, Indian and Japanese aggressive research, as able-bodied as Tibetan activists.
June 2012: DHS appear that amid December 2011 and June 2012, hackers targeted 23 gas activity companies and blanket advice that could be acclimated for demolition purposes. Forensic abstracts suggests the probes originated in China.
June 2012: P.L.A. Unit 61398 attacked Digital Bond, a SCADA aegis aggregation with a extra phishing attack.
August 2012: Jerry Lee, a above CIA agent, attempted to accommodate China with classified advice about CIA activities aural China.
September 2012: Advisers of a semiconductor dent accessories architect blanket barter secrets accompanying to high-volume accomplishment of semiconductor wafers acclimated in cyberbanking accessories for the account of a aggressive Chinese firm.
September 2012: Chinese hackers infiltrated Telvent Canada, an automated automation company, and blanket abstracts accompanying to SCADA systems throughout North America.
September 2012: Sixing Liu, a Chinese national, blanket abstruse abstracts accompanying to aegis items and conspired to accord the advice to China.
September 2012: Ji Li Huang and Xiao Guang Qi attempted to abduct barter abstruse advice accompanying to cellular bottle accession for the account of a aggressive Chinese firm.
November 2012: Wenfeng Lu, a Chinese national, blanket barter abstruse advice for medical accessories from American medical accessories manufacturers for the account a Chinese firm.
2013: The FBI warned Senator Dianne Feinstein’s appointment that one of her San Francisco-based drivers was a Chinese intelligence asset.
January 2013: A Aegis Science Lath address begin that Chinese hackers blanket U.S. weapons systems designs including for the PAC-3, THAAD, Aegis, F/A-18 fighter jet, V-22 Osprey, Black Hawk, and Littoral Combat Ship.
January 2013: The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, and Bloomberg News accomplished assiduous cyberattacks, accustomed to arise in China.
February 2013: PLA Unit 61398 had afraid 115 U.S.-victims aback 2006.
March 2013: Beginning in 2012, Chinese hackers targeted noncombatant and aggressive amphibian operations aural the South China Sea, in accession to US companies complex in amphibian accessory systems, aerospace companies and aegis contractors.
May 2013: Chinese hackers compromised the U.S. Department of Labor and at atomic nine added agencies, including the Agency for All-embracing Development and the Army Corps of Engineers’ Civic Inventory of Dams.
June 2013: PLA hackers infiltrated the computer networks of the U.S. Transportation Command and blanket acute aggressive information.
July 2013: Tung Pham blanket barter secrets from a solar technology aggregation for the account of a aggressive Chinese firm.
September 2013: Chinese hackers targeted three US organizations, including a ample American oil and gas corporation.
September 2013: Chinese hackers acclimated malware, accustomed as ‘Sykipot’, to ambition entities in the U.S. Aegis Industries and companies in key industries such as: telecommunications, computer hardware, government contractors, and aerospace. In mid-2013 they targeted the US noncombatant aerodynamics sector.
October 2013: Chinese hackers ambition a U.S. based anticipate tank.
December 2013: Six Chinese nationals conspired to abduct barter abstruse advice accompanying to seeds from Dupont, Monsanto, and LG seeds for the account of Beijing Dabeinong Technology Group, a aggressive Chinese firm.
December 2013: Weiqiang Zhang blanket barter abstruse advice accompanying to rice seeds from an American agronomical close for the account of a Chinese firm.
February 2014: Amin Yu blanket systems and apparatus for abyssal submersible cartage from U.S. manufacturers for the account of a state-owned article in China.
May 2014: Chinese aggressive hackers targeted six American companies in the power, metals, and solar assembly industries and blanket barter abstruse information. The U.S. Department of Justice accusable them and articular them as associates of the People’s Liberation Army Unit 61398.
June 2014: CrowdStrike appear that Unit 61398 had targeted U.S. corporations in the accessory industry.
June 2014: Jun Xie allegedly blanket barter abstruse advice from GE Healthcare to account a aggressive article in China.
August 2014: Community Bloom Systems appear that doubtable Chinese hackers infiltrated its arrangement and blanket claimed advice from 4.5 amateur patients.
August 2014: Su Bin, a Chinese national, formed with co-conspirators in China to admission Boeing’s computer networks to accretion admission to arcane admission about the C-17, the F-22, and the F-35.
August 2014: Chinese hackers infiltrated the US Investigations Services. This was one of the aboriginal accomplish in the 2015 OPM hack.
September 2014: Chinese aggregation Huawei again attempted to abduct barter abstruse advice about robotics designs from T-Mobile.
September 2014: Benjamin Bishop was arrested for casual classified advice amid May 2012 – December 2012 to a Chinese civic he was romantically complex with.
November 2014: Chinese hackers breached the U.S. Postal Account computer networks and exfiltrated abstracts of about 800,000 employees.
November 2014: Yu Long formed at URTC from 2008-2014, but was recruited by the state-run Shenyang Institute of Automation in 2014. Upon abandonment Long blanket arcane IP, barter secrets, and export-controlled technology to accord to SIA for the account of China.
February 2015: Xudong Yao blanket barter abstruse advice apropos to locomotives for the account of a Chinese firm.
January 2015: Chinese hackers, including Fujie Wang, infiltrated Anthem Inc., a bloom insurer company, and blanket abstracts apropos about 78.8 amateur bodies from Anthem’s computer networks.
March 2015: Canadian advisers say Chinese hackers attacked U.S. hosting armpit GitHub. GitHub said the advance absorb a advanced aggregate of advance vectors and acclimated new techniques to absorb biting web users in the flood of cartage to the site. According to the researchers, the advance targeted pages for two GitHub users – GreatFire and The New York Times’ Chinese mirror armpit – both of which avoid China’s firewall.
April 2015: The Appointment of Cadre Administration apparent that China had infiltrated its networks and baseborn the claimed advice of federal employees, including aegis approval information.
May 2015: Xiwen Huang, a Chinese businessman, blanket arcane and barter abstruse advice – including bookish acreage – from an bearding government analysis ability accompanying to aggressive abettor ammunition cells, for the account of China.
May 2015: Chinese intelligence admiral infiltrated networks and exfiltrated barter abstruse advice about turbofan engines from U.S. and European aerospace firms over the advance of bristles years.
May 2015: Beginning in 2014, Thomas Rukavina blanket and anesthetized on barter abstruse advice from PPG to a aggressive Chinese firm.
May 2015: Chinese nationals Wei Pang and Hao Zhang blanket barter secrets accompanying to the development of thin-film aggregate acoustic resonator (FBAR) technology for the account of China.
May 2015: Chinese hackers exfiltrated cogent amounts of chump abstracts from United Airlines.
September 2015: Robert O’Rourke allegedly illegally downloaded abstracts from his employer, an American architect of cast-iron products. O’Rourke had accustomed a agnate position with a battling close in China and was planning to use the baseborn IP to advance the competitiveness of his new firm’s products.
November 2015: Dutch aegis close Fox-IT articular a Chinese blackmail actor, ‘Mofang’, that had launched cyber attacks adjoin government noncombatant and aggressive agencies in the United States and added industries, including corporations administering solar corpuscle research.
December 2015: Chinese Civic Xu Jiaqiang conspired to abduct antecedent cipher from an bearding US aggregation area he formed as software developer. Xu advised to alteration the baseborn cipher to account China’s Civic Bloom and Family Planning Commission.
January 2016: Tao Li and co-defendants Yu Xue & Yan Mei affianced in cabal to abduct barter secrets from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) for the account of a Chinese firm.
March 2016: Kun Shan Chun, a aborigine U.S. citizen, was bedevilled to 24 months in bastille for acting as an abettor of China. Chun, an FBI abettor with a clandestine clearance, provided a Chinese government official with sensitive, nonpublic advice about FBI surveillance methods, centralized organization, and analyze and biking patterns of an FBI appropriate agent.
April 2016: Szuhsiung Ho, an American nuclear architect alive as a adviser by CGNPC, provided engineers and experts to abetment CGNPC in developing nuclear actual and reactors amid 1997 and 2016 after allotment from DOE.
March 2017: A State Department abettor with TS approval provided copies of centralized Department of State abstracts to Chinese intelligence officers.
April 2017: Chinese hackers targeted a U.S. anticipate tank.
May 2017: Beginning in 2011, Hackers from the internet aegis close Boyusec compromised the networks of three companies over a multi-year aeon and acquired admission to arcane abstracts and data, including acute centralized communications, usernames and passwords, and business and bartering information.
June 2017: US aborigine Shan Shi and Chinese civic Gang Liu formed on account of Chinese aggregation CBM-Future New Actual Science and Technology Co. Ltd. (CBMF) to abduct barter secrets accompanying to the development of syntactic cream from an bearding all-around engineering firm.
June 2017: Kevin Patrick Mallory, a above CIA officer, transferred classified abstracts to an abettor of China’s intelligence services.
August 2017: Dong Liu attempted to admission barter abstruse advice from Medrobotics Association for China.
September 2017: China allegedly amid malware into a broadly acclimated PC administration tool. The malware targeted at atomic 20 above all-embracing technology firms.
October 2017: China allegedly agitated out a cyberattack adjoin a U.S. anticipate catchbasin and law firm, both of which were associated with avoiding Chinese administrator Guo Wengui.
October 2017: Jerry Jindong Xu approved to advice Chinese investors body a sodium cyanide bulb to attempt with Chemours by burglary appraisement information, passwords for spreadsheets, arcane documents, and bulb arrangement diagrams from Chemours while he was alive there.
January 2018: Yi-Chi Shih and Kiet Ahn Mai blanket barter abstruse advice from Monolithic Microwave Integrated Ambit (MMIC) technology for the account of Chengdu GaStone Technology Aggregation (CGTC), a aggressive Chinese firm.
January 2018: Chinese hackers infiltrated a U.S. Navy architect alive for the Naval Undersea Warfare Center. 614 gigabytes of actual accompanying to a supersonic anti-ship missile for use on U.S. submarines were taken, forth with abysmal radio allowance advice accompanying to cryptographic systems and the Navy abysmal development unit’s cyberbanking warfare library.
April 2018: Yanjun Xu, an MSS operative, attempted to recruit experts alive by arch American aerodynamics companies to China, generally beneath the guise of giving a presentation at a university.
April 2018: A cyber espionage advance basic in China calm abstracts from satellite, telecom, and aegis organizations in the United States and Southeast Asia.
June 2018: Ron Rockwell Hansen, a above DIA officer, attempted to address civic aegis advice to China.
July 2018: Xiaqing Zhang conspired to abduct barter abstruse advice from General Electric for the account of China.
July 2018: Xiaolang Zhang was arrested for burglary barter abstruse advice about the ambit lath of Apple’s self-driving car initiative. The case is still alive as of August 2019.
September 2018: Chinese hackers breached the systems of the Starwood auberge alternation in 2014. It is estimated that the claimed advice of up to 500 amateur bodies was stolen.
September 2018: Ji Chaoqun, a Chinese aborigine residing in Chicago, formed at the bidding of the Jiangsu Province Ministry of State Aegis (JSSD) to get biographical advice on eight Chinese nationals alive as engineers and scientists in the United States that the JSSD had targeted for recruitment. Some formed for U.S. aegis contractors.
November 2018: Chen Zhengkun, He Jianting, and Wang Yungming blanket Micron barter secrets accompanying to activating random-access anamnesis technology (DRAM) for the account of China.
November 2018 : Beginning in March 2017, US aborigine Xiaorong You and Chinese civic Liu Xiangchen conspired to abduct barter secrets account added than $100 amateur accompanying to the development of BPA-free coatings. You blanket barter secrets from the two American companies that alive her and provided them to Liu, whose aggregation acclimated them to actualize articles that would attempt with the two American companies in question.
December 2018 : A Chinese national, Hongjin Tan, was arrested for burglary barter abstruse advice from an American petroleum company, Phillips 66, and conspiring to use to account a Chinese firm.
December 2018: Chinese hackers blanket IP and arcane business and abstruse advice from managed account providers – companies that administer IT basement for added businesses and governments.
December 2018: Chinese hackers blanket hundreds of gigabytes of abstracts from computers of added than 45 technology companies and U.S. government agencies. The defendants additionally blanket names, SSNs, DOBs, bacon info, buzz numbers, and email addresses of added than 100,000 US Navy personnel.
January 2019: A Chinese national, Jizhong Chen, blanket barter abstruse advice about free cartage from Apple to account a aggressive Chinese firm.
March 2019: Beginning in April 2017, Chinese hackers blanket analysis from universities about amphibian technology actuality developed for aggressive use.
March 2019: Chinese hackers targeted Israeli aegis firms that had admission to the US military.
April 2019: Chinese hackers blanket General Electric’s barter secrets apropos jet abettor agent technologies.
June 2019: Haoyang Yu was arrested in affiliation with burglary proprietary advice from Analog Devices, a U.S. semiconductor company.
June 2019: Aback at atomic 2017, Chinese hackers exfiltrated Call Detail Records (CDRs) from telecommunication companies to clue dissidents, officials, and doubtable spies.
July 2019: Chinese hackers targeted three U.S. account companies with a phishing advance to accretion admission to computer networks.
August 2019: State-sponsored Chinese hackers conducted a spear-phishing advance adjoin advisers of three above U.S. account companies.
August 2019: A ahead anonymous Chinese espionage group, APT41, was begin to accept formed aback 2012 to accumulate abstracts from firms in telecommunications, healthcare, semiconductor manufacturing, and apparatus learning. The accumulation was additionally alive in the annexation of basic currencies.
We would like to acknowledge Evan Burke, Matthew Serrone, Khristal Thomas, and Arthur Nelson for their contributions to this timeline.
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